NUTRITIONAL FINAL EXAM

1. Which of the following food substances can be converted to Vitamin A in the body?
A. Beta-Carotene
B. Tryptophan
C. Chlorophyll
D. Manganese
Answer. A. Beta-Carotene

2. Which of the following is not a fat-soluble vitamin?
A. Retinol
B. Cyanocobalamin
C. Tocopherol
D. Vitamin K 
Answer. B. Cyanocobalamin Professional nursing writing help "Nutritional final examMeet the team that makes it all possible

3. After his visit to the eye doctor. Greg began eating 1 medium carrot every day. On a weekend camping trip, he didn't have access to carrots or carrot juice. He wonders if he got enough Vitamin A over the weekend. What advice would you give to Greg?
A. Take a Vitamin A supplement as soon as you get home.
B. As long as you eat carrots Sunday night, you'll be OK.
C. Don't worry. Fat soluble vitamins are stored in the body. It takes longer than one day to develop any adverse effects.
D. Well there isn't any Vitamin A in carrots anyway, Professional nursing writing help "Nutritional final examMeet the team that makes it all possible so you'll be OK.
Answer. C. Don't worry. Fat soluble vitamins are stored in the body. It takes longer than one day to develop any adverse effects.

4. Your sister Ellen has joined the Peace Corps and has been assigned to improve the nutritional status of children in Indonesia. Once there, she learns that many of the children and some adults suffer from night blindness. Which of the following foods should she recommend to help prevent others from developing this condition?
A. Powdered skim milk
B. Orange juice
C. Peanut butter
D. Sweet potato
Answer. D. Sweet potato

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5. Why shouldn't a woman who is 7 months pregnant be prescribed Accutane to fight acne?
A. It may aggravate existing edema.
B. Made from Vitamin A, it's highly toxic and can cause birth defects.
C. It may lead to prolongation of labor and delivery.
D. It's high Vitamin D concentration causes bleeding.
Answer. B. Made from Vitamin A, it's highly toxic and can cause birth defects.

6. Which of the following foods is a very good Professional nursing writing help "Nutritional final examMeet the team that makes it all possible source of Vitamin A?
A. Pumpkin pie
B. Corn
C. Baked potato
D. Whole grain bread
Answer. A. Pumpkin pie

7. Which of the following compounds is known to function as a hormone?
A. Vitamin K
B. Vitamin D
C. Phylloquinone
D. Vitamin E
Answer. B. Vitamin D

8. Which of the following can the body use to synthesize Vitamin D?
A. Bone tissue
B. Carotenoids
C. Sunlight
D. Water
Answer. C. Sunlight

9. A child with bowed legs is likely deficient is Vitamin
A. A
B. D
C. E
D. K
Answer. B

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10. The vitamin deficiency that creates weak bones and manifests itself as knock-knees or bowed legs is called what?
A. Rickets
B. Rackets
C. Rackemia
D. Rickatosis
Answer. A. Rickets

11. Your friend just moved to Northern Canada to do full-time research on bats in caves. Show works in the caves during the day and leaves at sundown when the bats are active. Which of the following would you advise she buy and consume regularly?
A. Orange Juice
B. Vitamin D fortified milk
C. Calcium fortified soy milk
D. Omega 3 fatty acid fortified milk
Answer. B. Vitamin D fortified milk

12. With inadequate Vitamin D Professional nursing writing help "Nutritional final examMeet the team that makes it all possible intake, bones lose calcium and become less dense. This sets the stage for what disease?
A. Osteophage
B. Osteoprecocius
C. Osteoanemia
D. Osteoporosis
Answer. D. Osteoporosis

13. Recently there has been a lot of news about the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Which of the following vitamins has been noted as preventing the oxidation of LDL's?
A. Vitamin A
B. Vitamin E
C. Vitamin K
D. Vitamin D
Answer. B. Vitamin E

14. Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet?
A. Meats
B. Citrus fruits
C. Milk and dairy products
D. Vegetable oils
Answer. D. Vegetable oils

15. Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant defending the body from free radical damage?
A. True
B. False
Answer. A. True

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16. In what chief capacity does Vitamin K function?
A. Blood clotting
B. Energy metabolism
C. Calcium itilization
D. Tissue renewal
Answer. B. Blood clotting

17. Jennifer has just had a baby boy. She was told that shortly after giving birth her son received an intramuscular injection of Vitamin K and she wonders why this was done. You explain that it
A. Was needed to prevent eye disease.
B. Protected the baby from excessive fat deposits.
C. Prevented possible bleeding events.
D. Was needed to promote good bone growth
Answer. C. prevented possible bleeding events.

18. Which fruits are highest in antioxidant power?
A. Bananas and oranges
B. Apples and pears
C. Strawberries and peaches
D. Blueberries and pomegranates
Answer. D. blueberries and pomegranates Professional nursing writing help "Nutritional final examMeet the team that makes it all possible

19. Supplements are the best source of phytonutrients?
A. True
B. False
Answer. B. False

20. Where are the fat-soluble vitamins stored?
A. In the liver and adipose tissue
B. In the stomach
C. In the gallbladder
D. In the intestines
Answer. A. In the liver and adipose tissue

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21. Water constitutes what percent of an adult's body weight?
A. 30%
B. 60%
C. 50%
D. 40%
Answer. B. 60%

22. Which of the following is not a function of water in the body?
A. Lubricant
B. Maintains protein structure
C. Participant in chemical reactions
D. Source of energy
Answer. D. Source of energy

23. All of the following are mild symptoms of dehydration (1-2% loss of body weight) except
A. Difficulty swallowing
B. Thirst
C. Fatigue
D. Weakness
Answer. A. Difficulty swallowing

24. What is the minimum or obligatory amount of water that must be excreted each day as urine in order to carry away the body's waste products? (Key: 250 mls Professional nursing writing help "Nutritional final examMeet the team that makes it all possible is approximately 1 cup)
A. 500 mls
B. 250 mls
C. 100 mls
D. 1000 mls
Answer. A. 500 mls

25. How much water loss impairs a person's physical performance?
A. 1-2%
B. 5-9%
C. 10-15%
D. 3-4%
Answer. D. 3-4%

26. What is the term for the movement of water across the cell membrane toward the more concentrated solutes?
A. Osmosis
B. Isotonic
C. Osmetric
D. Isonex
Answer. A. Osmosis

27. What organ provides the major control for Professional nursing writing help "Nutritional final examMeet the team that makes it all possible homeostasis of body fluids?
A. Liver
B. Kidneys
C. Heart
D. Skeletal muscle
Answer. B. Kidneys

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28. When a person loses fluid by sweating or bleeding, what minerals are lost in greatest quantity?
A. Sodium and chloride
B. Bicarbonate and sulfate
C. Calcium and magnesium
D. Potassium and phosphorous
Answer. A. Sodium and chloride Professional nursing writing help "Nutritional final examMeet the team that makes it all possible

29. Sodium losses occur through what body routes?
A. Vomiting and diarrhea
B. Sweating and perspiring
C. None of the above
D. All of the above
Answer. D. All of the above

30. Which population is the least salt-sensitive group?
A. Obese persons
B. Black Americans
C. Caucasians
D. Diabetic persons
Answer. C. Caucasians

31. What is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet?
A. Unprocessed foods
B. Natural salt content of foods
C. Processed foods
D. Salt added during cooking and at the table
Answer. C. Processed foods

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32. Which of the following is not among the common food sources of potassium?
A. Potatoes
B. Cheese
C. Fresh fruits
D. Orange juice
Answer. B. Cheese

33. High intakes of potassium prevent and correct what illness?
A. Lactose intolerance
B. Celiac Sprue illness
C. Chron's Disease
D. Hypertension
Answer. D. Hypertension

34. Almost all (99%) of the calcium Professional nursing writing help "Nutritional final examMeet the team that makes it all possible in the body is used to
A. Provide rigidity for the bones and teeth
B. provide energy for cells
C. regulate the transmission of nerve impulses
D. maintain the narrow blood level limits of calcium
Answer. A. provide rigidity for the bones and teeth

35. Which of the following foods are significant sources of oxalates and interfere with calcium absorption?
A. Spinach and sweet potatoes
B. Processed cheeses
C. Fermented dairy products
D. Seeds and nuts
Answer A. Spinach and sweet potatoes

36. Eating a handful of nuts on occasion is a smart habit as they contain magnesium which plays an important role in what?
A. Vision
B. Wound healing
C. Heart health
D. Carbohydrate digestion
Answer C. Heart health

37. Which of the following is a characteristic of the trace minerals?
A. The amounts of trace minerals in foods are dependent, in part, on soil and water compositions.
B. Many of us are deficient in trace minerals.
C. Deficiencies are most difficult to recognize in children than in adults.
D. Deficiencies are genetic.
Answer. A. The amounts of trace minerals in foods are dependent, in part, on soil and water compositions.

38. Your cousin Emily is a vegetarian. Since you just leaned in your nutrition class that non-heme iron is absorbed less efficiently than heme iron, you want to make sure Emily is getting enough iron. What should you recommend Emily do to maximize her iron absorption?
A. Eat her non-heme iron sources with a class of orange juice
B. Choose spinach as her main source of iron.
C. Eat her non-heme iron sources with a glass of milk.
D. Refrain from any major activities after eating to aid in the digestion/absorption of iron.
Answer. A. Eat her non-heme iron sources with a class of Professional nursing writing help "Nutritional final examMeet the team that makes it all possible orange juice.

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39. Worldwide iron deficiency (affection more than 1.2 billion people) is the?
A. Least common nutrient deficiency
B. Result of a hereditary defect
C. Result of parasitic infections in the GI tract
D. Most common nutrient deficiency
Answer. D. Most common nutrient deficiency

40. Why are hemoglobin and hematocrit tests of limited usefulness in assessment of iron status?
A. They are expensive to perform.
B. They are notoriously inaccurate.
C. The range of normal value is usually wide.
D. They are late indicators of iron deficiency.
Answer. D. They are late indicators of iron deficiency.

41. In the United States, iron is currently added to which of the following foods?
A. Breads and cereals
B. Milk and cheese
C. Peanut butter and jellies
D. Orange juice and tomato juice
Answer. A. Breads and cereals

42. Which of the following has been shown to improve absorption of iron from iron supplements?
A. Taking them with milk.
B. Taking them with orange juice.
C. Taking them in the form of the ferric salt.
D. Taking them on an empty stomach rather than with meals.
Answer. D. Taking them on an empty stomach rather than with meals.

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43. Which of the following is characteristic of lead in the body?
A. It does not impact brain development. Professional nursing writing help “Nutritional final exam”  Meet the team that makes it all possible
B. It has no effect on other minerals and their function.
C. It displaces minerals making them unable to perform their roles.
D. It does not impair balance and motor development.
Answer. C. It displaces minerals making them unable to perform their roles.

44. Athletes can safely add muscle tissue by
A. Tripling protein intake.
B. Taking hormones duplicating those of puberty.
C. Eating protein for fuel and decreasing intake of carbohydrates.
D. Gutting a demand on muscles to make them work harder.
Answer. D. putting a demand on muscles to make them work harder.

45. Sarah works full time as an office secretary and has gained 20 pounds in the past 5 years. To promote optimal fat loss through exercise, which activities should Sarah initiate?
A. Wearing an electrical impulse belt throughout the day.
B. High intensity aerobic activity like cycling or swimming after work.
C. Low to moderate intensity aerobic exercise such as walking on work breaks or hiking on weekends.
D. Very high intensity anaerobic activity like running 1/4 mile at maximum speed.
Answer. C. Low to moderate intensity aerobic exercise such as walking on work breaks or hiking on weekends.
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46. Which of the following diets promote superior physical performance in athletes?
A. High fat diet.
B. High protein diet.
C. High carbohydrate diet.
D. Normal mixed diet with vitamin supplements.
Answer. C. High carbohydrate diet.

47. What type of intake, and time of its ingestion, promotes the first and most rapid repletion of glycogen stores after physical activity
A. Mixed meal taken within 4 hours.
B. Mixed meal taken within 30 minutes.
C. High carbohydrate meal taken within Professional nursing writing help "Nutritional final examMeet the team that makes it all possible 3 hours.
D. High carbohydrate snack taken within 15 minutes.
Answer. D. High carbohydrate snack taken within 15 minutes.

48. Which of the following is a feature of protein nutrition in physical activity?
A. Physical activity requires an intake of only protein foods.
B. Protein is the major fuel for physical activity.
C. It is best for athletes to consume non-heme iron protein sources of food.
D. Protein is not the major fuel for physical activity.
Answer. D. Protein is not the major fuel for physical activity.

49. What should be the composition of the last (pregame) meal for an athlete before an athletic event?
A. High carbohydrate, low-fiber, providing 300-800 k calories.
B. High protein, providing 30 kcal/kg body weight.
C. Vegetables and fruit juices, providing 100-200 k calories.
D. High fiber, providing 200-300 k calories and a liberal amount of fluid which is beneficially retained by the fiber in the GI tract.
Answer. A. High carbohydrate, low-fiber, providing 300-800 k calories.

50. Why should fiber rich foods be avoided in an athlete's pregame meal?
A. The fiber delays absorption of fat.
B. The fiber interferes with the breakdown of glucose.
C. The meal crowds out more energy dense foods.
D. The fiber retains water in the GI tract that otherwise could be absorbed.
Answer. D. The fiber retains water in the GI tract that otherwise could be absorbed.

51. What is the recommended composition of the postgame meal of an athlete?
A. Low protein
B. High protein
C. Low carbohydrate
D. High carbohydrate
Answer. D. High carbohydrate.

52. Which of the following is a feature of creatine supplementation in athletes?
A. Power athletes, such as weight lifters, use creatine to improve muscle strength and size to enhance performance.
B. It may enhance performance of endurance marathon athletes.
C. Long term use of creatine is deemed safe and doesn't affect liver and kidney function.
D. It causes short term weight loss consisting primarily of lean tissue.
Answer. A. Power athletes, such as weight lifters, Professional nursing writing help "Nutritional final examMeet the team that makes it all possible use creatine to improve muscle strength and size to enhance performance.

53. Which of the following is a characteristic of oxygenated water use in athletes?
A. Regular use reduces risk for sports anemia.
B. The water's oxygen can more easily cross over into the GI tract.
C. The oxygen in the water has no benefit.
D. It increases blood oxygen but only for about 15 minutes.
Answer. C. The oxygen in the water has no benefit.

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54. Jenny has just learned that she is one month pregnant. She has been looking forward to all the ice cream, chips, and cakes she has seen women on TV and in movies eating when they are pregnant. What is the best advice for Jenny?
A. She does not have increased energy needs in the first trimester of pregnancy and should not indulge herself.
B. She can eat as much of these snack foods as she wants as she doesn't need to worry about calorie intake.
C. She should eat plenty of these snack foods to nourish her growing baby.
D. Tell her to relax, have fun. It's her time to eat the food quantity for Professional nursing writing help "Nutritional final examMeet the team that makes it all possible two. Besides she can worry about any extra weight gain later.
Answer. A. She does not have increased energy needs in the first trimester of pregnancy and should not indulge herself.