NR 508 Nutrition and Nutraceuticals in Advanced Pharmacology Questions with Answers

1.The most frequent type of drug-food interaction is food:
a) Causing increased therapeutic drug levels
b) Affecting the metabolism of the drug
c) Altering the volume of distribution of drugs
d) Affecting the gastrointestinal absorption of drugs
Answer. Affecting the gastrointestinal absorption of drugs

2.Food in the gastrointestinal tract affects drug absorption by:
a) Altering the pH of the colon, which decreases absorption
b) Competing with the drug for plasma proteins
c) Altering gastric emptying time
d) Altering the pH of urine
Answer. Altering gastric emptying time

3.Food can alter the pH of the stomach, leading to:
a) Enhanced drug metabolism
b) Altered vitamin K absorption
c) Increased vitamin D absorption
d) Altered drug bioavailability
Answer. Altered drug bioavailability

4.Fasting for an extended Professional assignment writing help "NR 508 Nutrition and Nutraceuticals in Advanced Pharmacology Questions with Answers" Meet the team that makes it all possible period can:
a) Increase drug absorption due to lack of competition between food and the drug
b) Alter the pH of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting absorption
c) Cause vasoconstriction, leading to decreased drug absorption
d) Shrink the stomach, causing decreased surface area for drug absorption
Answer. Cause vasoconstriction, leading to decreased drug absorption

5.Tetracycline needs to be given on an empty stomach because it chelates with:
a) Calcium
b) Magnesium
c) Iron
d) All of the above
Answer. All of the above

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6.A low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet may:
a) Increase drug-metabolizing enzymes
b) Decrease drug absorption from the GI tract
c) Alter drug binding to plasma proteins
d) Enhance drug elimination
Answer. Increase drug-metabolizing enzymes

7.Grapefruit juice contains furanocoumarins that have been found to:
a) Alter absorption of drugs through competition for binding sites
b) Inhibit CYP 3A4, leading to decreased first-pass metabolism of drugs
c) Alter vitamin K metabolism, leading to prolonged bleeding
d) Enhance absorption of calcium and vitamin D
Answer. Inhibit CYP 3A4, leading to decreased first-pass metabolism of drugs

8.Cruciferous vegetables may alter drug pharmacokinetics by:
a) Enhancing absorption of weakly acidic drugs
b) Altering CYP 3A4 activity, leading to elevated levels of drugs, such as the statins
c) Inducing CYP 1A2, possibly leading to therapeutic failure of drugs metabolized by CYP 1A2
d) Decreasing first-pass metabolism of drugs
Answer. Inducing CYP 1A2, possibly leading to therapeutic failure of drugs metabolized by CYP 1A2

9.Milk and other foods that alkalinize the urine may:
a) Result in basic drugs being reabsorbed in the renal tubule
b) Increase the elimination of basic drugs in the urine
c) Decrease the elimination of acidic drugs Professional assignment writing help "NR 508 Nutrition and Nutraceuticals in Advanced Pharmacology Questions with Answers" Meet the team that makes it all possible
d) Not alter drug elimination due to the minimal change in urine pH
Answer. Result in basic drugs being reabsorbed in the renal tubule

10.Antacids such as calcium carbonate (Tums) can reduce the absorption of which of the following nutrients?
a) Protein
b) Calcium
c) Iron
d) Vitamin K
Answer. Iron

11.Phenytoin decreases folic acid absorption by:
a) Altering the pH of the stomach
b) Increasing gastric emptying time
c) Inhibiting intestinal enzymes required for folic acid absorption
d) Chelation of the folic acid into inactive ingredients
Answer. Inhibiting intestinal enzymes required for folic acid absorption

12.Patients taking warfarin need to be educated about the vitamin K content of foods to avoid therapeutic failure. Foods high in vitamin K that should be limited to no more than one serving per day include:
a) Spinach
b) Milk
c) Romaine lettuce
d) Cauliflower
Answer. Spinach

13.The American Dietetic Association has recommended the use of specific nutritional supplements in the following population(s):
a) 400 IU per day Professional assignment writing help "NR 508 Nutrition and Nutraceuticals in Advanced Pharmacology Questions with Answers" Meet the team that makes it all possible of vitamin D in all infants and children
b) 1,000 IU per day of vitamin D for all pregnant women
c) 60 mg per day of iron for all adults over age 50 years
d) All of the above
Answer. 400 IU per day of vitamin D in all infants and children

14.The American Dietetic Association recommends pregnant women take a supplement including:
a) 1,000 IU daily of vitamin D
b) 2.4 mcg/day of vitamin B12
c) 600 mcg/day of folic acid
d) 8 mg/day of iron
Answer. 600 mcg/day of folic acid

15.The American Heart Association and the American Dietetic Association recommend a minimum daily fiber intake of ______ for cardiovascular health:
a) 10 mg/day
b) 15 mg/day
c) 20 mg/day
d) 25 mg/day
Answer. 25 mg/day

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16.Which of the following vitamin or mineral supplements may by teratogenic if a pregnant woman takes more than the recommended amount?
a) Iron
b) Vitamin A
c) Vitamin B6
d) Vitamin C
Answer. Vitamin A

17.Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) may be prescribed to:
a) Decrease the incidence of beriberi
b) Reduce headaches and migraines
c) Prevent pernicious anemia
d) Treat hyperlipidemia
Answer. Reduce headaches and migraines

18.Isoniazid (INH) may induce a Professional assignment writing help "NR 508 Nutrition and Nutraceuticals in Advanced Pharmacology Questions with Answers" Meet the team that makes it all possible deficiency of which vitamin?
a) B6
b) C
c) D
d) E
Answer. B6

19.Pregnant patients who are taking isoniazid (INH) should take 25 mg/day of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) to prevent:
a) Beriberi
b) Peripheral neuropathy
c) Rickets
d) Megaloblastic anemia
Answer. Peripheral neuropathy

20.Vitamin B12 deficiency may lead to:
a) Hair loss
b) Insomnia
c) Dry scales on the scalp
d) Numbness and tingling of the hands
Answer.

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21.Smokers are at risk for vitamin C deficiency. It is recommended that smokers take _______ vitamin C supplement.
a) 100 mg/day
b) 500 mg/day
c) 1,000 mg/day
d) 35 mg/day more than nonsmokers
Answer. Numbness and tingling of the Professional assignment writing help "NR 508 Nutrition and Nutraceuticals in Advanced Pharmacology Questions with Answers" Meet the team that makes it all possible hands

22.There is strong evidence to support that adequate vitamin C intake prevents:
a) The common cold
b) Breast cancer
c) Scurvy
d) All of the above
Answer. Scurvy

23.Adequate vitamin D is needed for:
a) Absorption of calcium from the gastrointestinal tract
b) Regulation of serum calcium levels
c) Regulation of serum phosphate levels
d) All of the above
Answer. All of the above

24.Newborns are at risk for early vitamin K deficiency bleeding and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all newborns receive:
a) IM vitamin K (phytonadione) within 24 hours of birth
b) Oral vitamin K supplementation in the first 3 weeks of life
c) Formula containing vitamin K or breast milk
d) Oral vitamin K in the first 24 hours after birth
Answer. IM vitamin K (phytonadione) within 24 hours of birth

25.Symptoms of folate deficiency include:
a) Thinning of the hair
b) Bruising easily
c) Glossitis
d) Numbness and tingling of the hands and feet
Answer. Glossitis

26.A patient with a new onset of systolic ejection murmur should be assessed for which nutritional deficiency?
a) Vitamin B12 Professional assignment writing help "NR 508 Nutrition and Nutraceuticals in Advanced Pharmacology Questions with Answers" Meet the team that makes it all possible
b) Vitamin C
c) Folate
d) Niacine
Answer. Folate

27.According to the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey study of dietary intake, the group at highest risk for inadequate calcium intake was:
a) The elderly (over age 60 years)
b) Teenage females
c) Teenage males
d) Preschoolers
Answer. Teenage females

28.Patients with iron deficiency will develop:
a) Hemolytic anemia
b) Megaloblastic anemia
c) Macrocytic-hypochromic anemia
d) Microcytic-hypochromic anemia
Answer. Microcytic-hypochromic anemia

29.There is evidence that dietary supplementation or adequate intake of fish oils and omega-3 fatty acids have well-documented:
a) Concern for developing cardiac dysrhythmias
b) Anti-inflammatory effects
c) Total cholesterol-lowering effects
d) Effects on fasting blood sugar
Answer. Anti-inflammatory effects

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30.There is enough preliminary evidence to recommend that children with autism receive which supplemental nutrient?
a) Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
b) Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
c) Calcium
d) Omega-3 fatty Professional assignment writing help "NR 508 Nutrition and Nutraceuticals in Advanced Pharmacology Questions with Answers" Meet the team that makes it all possible acids
Answer. Omega-3 fatty acids

31.There is sufficient evidence to support the use of omega-3 fatty acids to treat the following disease(s):
a) Asthma
b) Autism
c) Arthritis
d) All of the above
Answer. Autism

32.It is reasonable to recommend supplementation with _________ in the treatment of hyperlipidemia.
a) Omega-3 fatty acids
b) Probiotics
c) Plant sterols
d) Calcium 
Answer. Plant sterols

33.Probiotics are recommended to be co-administered when ____________ are prescribed:
a) Antacids
b) Antihypertensives
c) Antidiarrheals
d) Antibiotics
Answer. Antibiotics

34.It is reasonable to add ___________ to a Helicobacter pylori treatment regimen to improve eradication rates of H. pylori.
a) Probiotics
b) Omega-3 fatty acids
c) Plant sterols
d) Fiber
Answer. Probiotics